Supernova 2002ap in M74
This page is devoted to information on Supernova 2002ap in M74 Basic information on this SN, including the last reported brightness, on this Supernova can be found on the main page.  Information on the original web pages for many of these images can be found on the updates and links web pages.
Discovered by Japanese amateur Yoji Hirose during a full moon.
(just like 1998bu).
The spectrum of this thing looks interesting. It has similarities
to 1998bw which
was a GRB canditate.  This is a rare type of Ib/c supernovae called a
Maximum brightness 12.3 was reached on February 12th.
The expected maximum was around mag 10.
We have a DSS Photometry reference image made by Odd Trondal.
Icon generated from the CfA image.
The following is a list of images of this SN, in chronological order. Click on the name in the "observer" column to see the image. Times and dates are in UT unless otherwise noted. If you know of any others, please tell me!
|INT image||2001/07||C||Progenitor, (in field?)|
|William Rogers image||2002/01/29.04||15.2||C||Pre Discovery|
|Yasuo Sano image||2002/01/31.375||13.4||C||mirror, local mirror|
|Josch Hambsch image||2002/01/31.751||13.6||C|
|Diego Rodríguez image||2002/01/31.776||13.5||V|
|Seikei High school image||2002/02/01.425||C|
|CfA image||2002/02/01||BVI||color, WOW|
|Kamila Hornocha image||2002/02/01||R|
|Tom McMahon image||2002/02/01.597||13.2||C|
|Rezman Obs image||2002/02/01.737||C||local mirror|
|Rafael Ferrando image||2002/02/01.783||13.1||CR||local mirror|
|Scutum Obs image||2002/02/01.8||C||local mirror|
|Ljubljana High school image||2002/02/01.804||13.5||C|
|JM Llapasset image||2002/02/01.810||13.2||CR|
|Gyula P. Szokoly image||2002/02/01.819||12.45||K||FITS format, notes|
|Gyula P. Szokoly image||2002/02/01.825||12.61||J||FITS format, notes|
|Cedric Leyrat image||2002/02/01.917||13.2||CR|
|Larry Robinson image||2002/02/02.094||C|
Rob Simcoe and|
Josh Bloom image
Rob Simcoe and|
Josh Bloom image
|Esteban Reina Lorenz image||2002/02/02.184||13||C|
|Paul Gitto image||2002/02/02||C||Comparison image|
|Ondrej Pejcha and P. Sobotka image||2002/02/02||VRI||color|
|Rezman Obs image||2002/02/02||C|
|Wendelstein Obs image||2002/02/02||BVI||color|
|Paolo Corelli image||2002/02/02.745||12.4||G||RGB image|
|Josch Hambsch image||2002/02/02.750||12.7||C|
|Rafael Ferrando image||2002/02/02.780||12.95||CR||local mirror|
|J. Nicolas image||2002/02/02.807||13.0||CR|
|Josep M. Bosch image||2002/02/02.810||12.9||CR|
|P. Dubreuil image||2002/02/02.817||13.0||CR|
|Ole Nielsen image||2002/02/02.826||12.7||C|
|Gyula P. Szokoly image||2002/02/02.827||12.22||K||FITS format, notes|
|Gyula P. Szokoly image||2002/02/02.832||12.46||J||FITS format, notes|
|Joaquin and Yago Ferreiros||2002/02/02.858||13.0||V||V filter image|
|Remanzacco Obs||2002/02/02.900||C||local mirror, mirror|
|Paul Gitto image||2002/02/03.015||12.4||C||comparison image|
|Rolando Ligustri image||2002/02/03||12.5||C|
|Gianluca Masi image||2002/02/03.760||12.9||R|
|Piergiorgio Ferrante image||2002/02/03.761||12.7||C||local mirror|
|Scutum Obs image||2002/02/03.8||C||local mirror|
Philip Keller and|
Christian Fuchs image
|P. Dubreuil image||2002/02/03.881||12.8||CR|
|Kereszty Zsolt image||2002/02/04||C||color version|
|Wise Obs image||2002/02/04?||RGB||Color|
|JM Llapasset image||2002/02/04.765||12.4||CR|
|Joel Nicolas image||2002/02/04.837||12.5||CR|
|Odd Trondal image||2002/02/04.888||12.4||CR|
|Fred Ewalt image||2002/02/05.016||12.3||C||color version|
|Stefan Lilge image||2002/02/05.743||12.1||C|
|Scutum Obs image||2002/02/05.8||C||local mirror|
|Matt Seegers image||2002/02/06||C|
|D Lefoulon image||2002/02/06.806||12.2||CR|
|Martin Mobberley image||2002/02/06.873||C||mirror|
|Paolo Corelli image||2002/02/07.761||12.1||C|
|J. Nicolas image||2002/02/07.785||12.3||CR|
|L. Brunetto image||2002/02/07.867||12.6||CR|
|John N. Gretchen III image||2002/02/08.125||12.6||C||color version|
|UMBC telescope image||2002/02/08||C||color|
|Arne Danielsen image||2002/02/08.770||12.5||CR|
|Torbjørn Fredriksen image||2002/02/08.759||12.68||C|
|JM Llapasset image||2002/02/08.774||12.2||CR|
|Rafael Ferrando image||2002/02/08.815||12.65||CR|
|Gerardo Jiménez image||2002/02/08.830||12.2||C|
|Pedro Re' image||2002/02/08.832||12.53||C||comparison images, Animated GIF|
|Pierre Dubreuil image||2002/02/08.833||C|
|Fred Ewalt image||2002/02/08.995||12.3||C||color version, comparison images|
|Richard Robinson image||2002/02/09.007||12.04||C|
|Phil Sullivan image||2002/02/09.350||12.31||V|
|Rafael Ferrando image||2002/02/09.780||12.60||CR|
|Nick James image||2002/02/09.786||C|
|Kovács Attila image||2002/02/10||C|
|Tordai Tamás image||2002/02/10||C|
|Stig Foss image||2002/02/10.797||12.7||R|
|Kereszty Zsolt image||2002/02/10.788||12.34||V|
|JM Llapasset image||2002/02/11.764||12.2||CR|
|JM Llapasset image||2002/02/12.807||12.3||CR|
|J Nicolas image||2002/02/12.821||12.3||CR|
|J. Blanco image||2002/02/12.855||C|
|L. Brunetto image||2002/02/12.866||12.60||CR|
|Yasuo Sano image||2002/02/13.388||12.29||CR|
|Stig Foss image||2002/02/13.799||12.7||R|
|Pedro Re' image||2002/02/13.811||12.6||C|
|Martin Mobberley image||2002/02/13.865||C|
|Martin Mobberley image||2002/02/14.803||C||mirror|
|Fred Ewalt image||2002/02/15.023||12.46||C|
|Seikei High School image||2002/02/15.382||12.8||C|
|Martin Mobberley image||2002/02/15.809||C|
|Martin Mobberley image||2002/02/16.802||C|
|Martin Mobberley image||2002/02/18.786||C|
|J. Nicolas image||2002/02/18.807||12.6||CR|
|J. Nicolas image||2002/02/19.790||12.7||CR|
|Stig Foss image||2002/02/20.767||13.1||R|
|J. Nicolas image||2002/02/21.807||12.8||CR|
|JM Llapasset image||2002/02/22.770||12.8||CR|
|Rafael Ferrando image||2002/02/22.831||13.04||CR|
|John N. Gretchen III image||2002/02/23.041||12.957||C||color version|
|Rafael Ferrando image||2002/02/23.804||13.11||CR|
|J. Nicolas image||2002/02/24.812||13.0||CR|
|Martin Mobberley image||2002/02/27.823||C|
|Rafael Ferrando image||2002/03/02.805||13.60||CR|
|JM Llapasset image||2002/03/03.775||13.5||CR|
|J Nicolas image||2002/03/03.790||13.4||CR|
|H. Motegi image||2002/03/04||C|
|JB. De Vanssay image||2002/03/04.824||13.4||CR|
|H. Motegi image||2002/03/07||C|
|Martin Mobberley image||2002/03/07.825||C|
|J Nicolas image||2002/03/07.819||CR|
|JM Llapasset image||2002/03/08.788||CR|
|R Poncy image||2002/03/10.793||CR|
|JM Llapasset image||2002/03/10.789||13.8||CR|
|J. Nicolas image||2002/03/10.797||13.8||CR|
|R Poncy image||2002/07/12.119||15.7||CR|
|F. Dubreuil image||2002/08/04.081||CR|
|JM Llapasset image||2002/08/13.117||16.6||CR|
|F. Dubreuil image||2002/08/14.012||16.5||CR||mirror|
|F. Dubreuil image||2002/08/14.026||16.61||CR|
|JM Llapasset image||2002/08/14.093||16.6||CR|
|JM Llapasset image||2002/08/14.106||16.3||Rc|
|Rezman Obs image||2002/08/18.094||C|
|J Nicolas image||2002/08/19.056||17.0||CR|
|F. Dubreuil image||2002/09/01.002||17.0||CR|
|A. Leroy image||2002/09/07.954||16.9||CR|
|Ota Observatory image||2002/09/11||CR|
|C. Dupuy image||2002/09/12.987||17.1||CR|
|A. Leroy image||2002/09/14.014||17.0||CR|
|JM Llapasset image||2002/09/16.063||17.0||CR|
|D. Lefoulon image||2002/09/17.109||17.2:||CR|
|A. Leroy image||2002/10/04.987||17.5||CR|
|C. Dupuy image||2002/10/05.004||17.5||CR|
|Josep M. Bosch image||2002/10/07.98||CR|
|Rafael Freeando image||2002/10/26.955||17.7||CR||Animated GIF showing asteroid 1998SY101|
|Fred Ewalt image||2002/10/29.090||18.2||CR|
|Derrick Farley image||2002/11/||RGB||color|
|Martin Mobberley image||2002/11/26.792||18.7||C||mirror, local mirror|
|Paulo Cacella image||2002/12/01.028||C||click here first|
|Fred Ewalt image||2002/12/21.991||19.25||C|
Dear SN watchers,
A SN in M74 is discovered by Japanese amateur Yoji Hirose at mag 14.5 (on Jan 29.4) and rising (mag 13.7 on Jan. 30.38). Latest SN in Messier object is SN 1999gn in M61. If this new object is of type Ia, it can become mag 11, the brightest SN since SN 1993J in M81.
Because I have no time for further noting, I give here the location only: R.A. = 1h36m23s.85, Decl. = +15o45'13".0 (2000.0, the KAIT result), which is about 258" west and 108" south of the face-on spiral (SA(s)c) galaxy M74 = NGC 628 in Pisces. The KAIT image can be seen at: http://astron.berkeley.edu/~bait/2002/sn2002ap.gif , and the chart can be found at AAVSO: http://www.aavso.org/charts/PSC/SN2002AP/ .
Dear SN watchers,
# As Kato-san noted, a subgroup "vsnet-campaign-sn2002ap" is created. # Please use this group for further discussion. Only the noteworthy # reports will be appear on other subgroups (-alert, -campaign-sn).
SN 2002ap seems brightening further. Y. Sano, Nayoro, Hokkaido, reports that it is mag 13.41 on Jan. 31.363 UT (unfiltered, compared with USNO-A2.0 rmag). It is surely rising.
The new object locates on the outermost region of the spiral arm. There are many foreground stars superimposed on and around M 74. SN 2002ap locates between GSC 1205.789 and GSC 1205.744. Sano's image (ftp://ftp.kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp/pub/vsnet/SNe/sn2002ap/sano0131.jpg) will help the identification, as well as images in D. Bishop's page: http://www.RochesterAstronomy.org/sn2002/index.html#2002ap , and http://www.RochesterAstronomy.org/sn2002/sn2002ap.html .
The comparison stars with V magnitude (measured by A. Henden) is available at AAVSO site http://www.aavso.org/charts/PSC/SN2002AP/ , or Tycho-2 Vmag based one is available at: http://www.shopplaza.nl/astro/vs-charts/sn2002ap.htm , which are very useful for a visual and V-filtered CCD observers. The unfiltered CCD observer, however, should use R magnitude or such. Temporary, USNO_A2.0 rmag would help.
Henden-V USNOrmag note GSC 1205.1059 13.3 12.9 1' west of SN GSC 1205.789 13.9 13.5 2' west of SN
The distance measure of M74 is about 29.5. The preliminary analysis of the spectrum (See vsnet-alert 7120) reveals very unusual feature, which resembles to that of "hypernova"! The follow-up observation in all wavelength is surely, strongly, highly recommended for this unique and very interesting exploding object!
We have placed a finderchart (2.0 x 2.5 degrees field) of this bright SN with comparison stars down to magnitude 12.6 selected from Tycho-2, just in case it is type Ia, at the following URL: http://www.shopplaza.nl/astro/vs-charts/sn2002ap.htm
A f-chart (15x15') with Arne Henden's 1-night photometry and comparison stars fainter than magnitude 12.1 is available at the AAVSO-site (http://www.aavso.org/charts/PSC/SN2002AP/).
Reinder Bouma/Edwin van Dijk
Dear SN watchers,
I have submitted an article (below) to CBAT. SN 2002ap is a unique object!
K. Kinugasa, H. Kawakita, Gunma Astronomical Observatory (GAO); K. Ayani, T. Kawabata, Bisei Astronomical Observatory (BAO); and H. Yamaoka, Kyushu University, write: "Low-resolution spectra of SN 2002ap (IAUC 7810) are obtained on Jan 31.4 UT with GAO 0.65-m telescope (with GCS, range 380-750 nm) and on Jan 31.5 UT with BAO 1.01-m telescope (range 470-700 nm). Preliminary reduction reveals rather blue continuum with a steep decreace over 650-700 nm, and without any deep absorption or emission. Very broad (FWZI ~ 30 - 50 nm) and shallow depressions exist around 570 nm (deepest), 470 nm, and 620 nm. Overall feature resembles to that of a peculiar Ib/c SN (or "hypernova") 1997ef, but SN 2002ap is much bluer. The follow-up observation in all wavelength is strongly recommended for this unusual and nearby exploding object. The spectra can be seen at: http://www.astron.pref.gunma.jp/images/gcs/SN2002ap.gif and http://www.town.bisei.okayama.jp/bao/astro/sn/sn2002ap.gif .
This information was announced on IAUC 7811, as well as other two spectrum (ESO and Wise Obs.), both of which reached the same conclution, i.e., SN 2002ap is a HYPERNOVA !
The intensive followup observation of this unique and very nearby hypernova is strongly encouraged.
I am now modelling the Jan.31 spectrum sent to us by H. Yamaoka with a SN spectrum synthesis code, SYNOW. The observed broad features can only be explained when assuming very high expansion velocities for the ejecta material, like in SNe 1997ef and 1998bw. This in turn suggests very high explosion energy, higher than 1 times 10^52 ergs. So it is a hypernova.
> I presume that the hypernova classification is based on its >luminosity (or total energy), rather than the spectrum.
Another feature of hypernovae is a very (up to 30000 km/s or more) expansion velocity, derived both from the width and the blueshift of the absorption features (if identified).
> I wonder what would be the expected maximum magnitude (and when) >of this super/hypernova.
It is not certain, but it would be as bright as, or somewhat brighter than, normal SN Ia. The maximum will be in next 20 days or so, but it is also uncertain. Keep your eyes on this exceptional object until it will go away.
I happened to write an article about hypernovae, for the publication of "2002 Special Bulletin of M 1 Group", on Jan. 24, 2002. What a coincidence! It is now in press and will be published this February, but by cortesy of the editor J. Ripero, I can introduce it here. It is very short article, so please have a fun.
Next, I will write about the Galactic Supernova ;-).
Sincerely Yours, Hitoshi Yamaoka, Kyushu Univ., Japan firstname.lastname@example.org---
H. Yamaoka (Kyushu University, Japan)
The search for the supernovae (SNe) has always a possibility of the discovery of a object in the other category. It would be a comet (like C/1998 Y2 (Li) and C/1999 E1 (Li) by the Lick Observatory SN Search), or a Galactic cataclysmic variable (like KL Draconis, which was originally announced as SN 1998di). Hypernovae, however, are not in the other category but of the subclass of supernovae, which are the whole destruction of stars at their end of the life.
The most impressive example of hypernovae is SN 1998bw. It was discovered by the ESO team, who were seeking the optical counterpart of the gamma-ray burst occured on Apr. 25, 1998. The spectrum of this object has some broad lines, which suggested that it is expanding with a high velocity, or, in the other word, exploding. The expansion velocity of this object reached 30000 km/s, i.e., 10 % of the speed of light.
It does not resemble, however, to that of any known class of supernovae. The hydrogen lines are absent, thus it would be classified as type I. But no silicon line (typical for SN Ia) nor helium line (strong in SN Ib) are observed. Such supernovae are classified as SN Ic, but SN 1998bw did not resemble to the typical SNe Ic, such as SN 1994I in Messier 51. Then, this "supernova" is now classified as "peculiar type Ic". The expanding velocity and the light curve suggests that the explosion was occured sometime during Apr. 21-27, which supports the association of this SN with the gamma-ray burst.
The other striking characteristics of SN 1998bw was its luminosity; it was more luminous than typical SNe Ia which are thought to be most luminous class among SNe. The energy source of SNe after explosion is a decay of the radioactive nuclei (mostly Nickel 56) produced during the explosion, so the amount of such matters would be larger in this object than the normal SNe. The light curve shows a slow evolution, which suggests that the large amount of material is ejected.
On these basis, a "hypernova" model is constructed (Iwamoto et al., 1998, Nature). Very massive star (having 40 solar mass or more at birth) evolved losing its hydrogen-rich envelope and helium layer, then finally the gravitational core collapse occured. If the energy supplied by the collapse is 30 times larger than the typical core-collapse SNe, the amount of the produced radioactive nuclei are 10 times larger than a typical core collapser, or slightly larger than in a typical SN Ia. It also explains the higher expansion velocity. The central remnant would be a blackhole, which may ejected the "gamma-ray burst" during the collapse.
Such hypernovae were searched from the previously discovered SNe. Then, from the resemblance of the spectrum and the light curve, it is now considered that SN 1997ef is also a hypernova though the coincident gamma-ray burst was not detected. This SN was discovered by Japanese amateur Yasuo Sano. You may be the next discoverer of hypernova! I hope your SN search and observation will reveal the new aspect of SN science.
SN 2002ap preliminary sequence (Henden)
The following message was relayed from Arne Henden, as originally posted to AAVSO-GRB:
I've posted on ftp://ftp.nofs.navy.mil/pub/outgoing/aah/sequence/sn2002ap.dat a BVRI field photometry file from last night. Much as I begged the clouds to go away, there remained scattered cirrus at the time these observations were made. My estimate is perhaps a 0.1mag external error on these numbers.
The photometry is inconsistent with the Vmag frame extraction that I gave Mike Simonsen to make the AAVSO chart for this field, with the new photometry about 0.25mag brighter at V. Brian Skiff was good enough to give me 3 stars that Harold Corwin measured many moons ago near the center of M74; that photometry was pretty poor, but indicated that the chart mags were too faint by 0.17mag. So bottom line is that I would trust the sn2002ap.dat magnitudes more than the current chart magnitudes, but both sets are under suspicion until a decent night is available.
However, the supernovae does appear in the .dat file at
RA (J2000) DEC RA DEC V B-V V-R R-I 24.099676 15.753692 01:36:23.92 +15:45:13.3 12.987 0.558 0.018 -0.212
The spectra indicate a rather blue continuum with broad absorption at 448.0, 557.5, and 719.5 nm, or roughly the center of B and V, and inbetween R and I. Depending on the depths of these absorptions, the broadband colors can be almost anything, as evidenced above. VRI indicate a pretty blue object; B is fainter than expected, but probably due to the 448.0 absorption.
Note that the position above is very close to the radio position, right-on in RA and 0.4arcsec off in DEC.